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 American Civilisation

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مُساهمةموضوع: American Civilisation    American Civilisation  Emptyالسبت 20 أكتوبر 2012 - 11:15

Slavery

The beginning of the slavery starts in 1441 in south of Africa, where a man and a woman were kidnapped and transferred to Portugal. 13 millions slaves were taken to American continent, only 3 millions were taken to USA; When they arrived there they were sell as Auchsub.

Slaves worked in farms, and the other Africans received weapons from Europe to continue war
The story of Indians

The Indians were scattered, living tribe. The English people start by the eastern front of north of America, the Indians tribes were in civil wars (apache, suew, …), and further the number of Indians never succeed two millions. Another thing, their arms were traditional, and in front of them there were 142 (à 2000 à1 million) English peoples.

The English peoples tart killing buffalos that were the force of Indians. the Indians were no much as the whites. The 13 stripes of the USA flag were for the first 13 stat of USA.
Discovering of America

Christopher Columbus[1] (Christobal Colon in Spanish call) wanted to explore the Atlantic Ocean that was unchartered (without a map). But the fact of describing was risky and took a long time.

In the middle ages, Europe brought spices, silk and perfume from India, just for the Crown and number of nobles. The distance was important, and the French, the English, and the Spanish were obliged to travel to India through oceans and seas. The aim was to find another way safe and short to India.

Christopher Columbus tried to realise his plane, he went to Portugal but the king denied his idea and refused to help him, so he went to span queen (Isabella), and he spent 5 years to convince her by conditions: he said: ‘you will have fame and wealth, and you call me: sir’, but he also had conditions which were:

becoming vice Roy

governing all the territories that he could find.

Becoming admiral of the Atlantic Ocean.

She did all that in order to find a solution to drop out Arabs from Grenade; she said: “I will not change my dress till the Arabs out of Spain”. After the leaving of Arabs, Isabella accepted to supply Columbus by 3 ships (the Santa Maria, the Nina, the Pinta) and 90 men.

In 2nd August 1492, Christopher Columbus started going from small town called Palos (in Spain), he went to many islands starting by Canaries, then from 9th September he spent 30 days of sailing without finding anything.

His crew wanted to rebellion but he asked them for 2 days of grace.

On 12th October the look out shouted terra (land). He found Bahamas islands and Salvador. Christopher Columbus didn’t discover USA, he discovered only the central of the continent. He didn’t discover the gold, and tribes were not rich.

The first person who discovered America was a Viking man called Leif Erickson in 1000 almost, these lands were Spain property, which sent conquistadors to colonize Mexico, Central America and almost Latino America except Brazil. Spain took the lion’s share thanks to sword, it becomes power thanks to the armada (fleet), and to courageous soldiers (hardy soldiers).

France: In 1509 Francis I sent John Verrazzano, an Italian navigator, want to explore the ocean, he found the north of America and established their French flag, several years later, Francis sent Jacques Cartier on two successive voyages.

Spain: In 1550 the Spanish colonist explorers Hernando Cortes and Francisco Pizzaro succeed to establish themselves in the central, South (Texas and Florida) and almost Latin America (Cuba, Argentina) excepted Brazil. By this way they found precious stores of Gold, silver, and they didn’t colonized the north because there were poor tribes.

Portugal: Brazil was taken by Portugal. The navigator Alvare Cabral 1586, 20 years old, who was sailing from his land to Africa, his sheep’s were lost in hurricane (storm), they found themselves on a red land (Brazil).

Dutch: in 1624 thanks to Henry Hudson, a Holland took the northern America, and named it New Amesterdam or New Netherland, when the English came, the fight began between the Dutch and the English who were established from the north to the south, and In 1664 the English succeed to drive out Dutch and renamed New Netherland as New York.


England: In 1497 Henry VII sent John Cabot to discover USA after a rebel from friends of Cabot, so it was became English property. Whereas Henry VIII neglected USA because of religions and marital problems (protestation against Catholic church, and his 8 wives). The same thing was with Henry IX, Henry X, Edward I and Edward II.

One Century enclosed without any English people living on USA.

Waiting until Virgin Queen Elisabeth I under the name of Virginia came to throne in 1558, the Queen Eli***eth gave more importance to the lands of America; she took important decisions in order to develop her country:

She gathered the wise men around her to advice and to help her, she called them state men, and they were Catholics and Protestants.

She realize that Spanish succeeded to colonizing because Spain had a strong soldiers, so she gave more importance to the way forces by making stormy ships, she permit to people to should kept Protestantism, and who create the time of piracy by giving permission to English people to steal what finds as gold and jolly and money in Spanish boats under the driving of Francis Drake (the sea dog). The second step was trying to discover USA and search for gold.

She command Walter Raleigh[2] to prepare the colonizing, so Raleigh sent out in 1584 an expedition which visited the island of Roanoke off the Coast of North Carolina and brought back reports of a favourable climate and country. In 1585 Raleigh dispatched 7 ships and 108 colonists to Roanoke, but the colonial experiment was a failure. Raleigh made another attempt in 1587, only to fail again. The colonists who shared in that venture disappeared completely (died, killed, lost..).

About 1585 Philip of Spain seemed to have decided to make a great attack on England with a very strong fleet called Armada. Fortunately for English people and thanks to a terrible storm at sea. The Armada had been defeated in 1588 by much smaller English fleet.

In 1619 they discovered tobacco, in this year we attend 3 major events

v First event: the arrival of ships carrying indentured (Dutch ship), it was the beginning of slavery, because they came from Africa, slaver work from 5 to 7 years to get their freedom.

v Second event: the colonists choose among themselves number of people to be in charge of affaires of the community. It was representative assembly, the begining of democracy.

v Third event: the arrival of a Dutch ship carrying 90 madams to marry and create new family against 100 kg of tobacco.

To settle USA England needed agencies to transport people from England to USA, for that there were two kind of colonizing agencies:
A . Corporate type:

Ruled by businessmen, capitalist and rich peoples, changed trade instead of baying spices silk or perfume. They transported people. As example London company (Virginia) in the south. Plymouth Company in the north. Since the two companies used to bay silk they were rich, but by changing the trade they lose money and begun to shut.

Whereas Massachusetts Bay Company resist and stay long time because it was constructed on religion purposes. Therefore a number of businessmen and religious people went to this company, bought the permission of this company. They were more interested in worship God.

The aims of these agencies were:

1. To make profits

2. To establish religion

3. To give chance to poor to have a better life by working in USA

4. To extend the English power and spread it.

Try to convent Indians to Christianity.
B . Proprietary type:

The proprietary agency for colonizing consisted of one or more persons to whom were given a grant of territory and various powers of government by the Crown. Pennsylvania had been given to William Pen (the creator of the new religion [separatism], number of Quakers who believe in Inward Light [they form circle, hand to hand and they pray]), and Lord Baltimore received a piece of land and called it Maryland

The proprietor or proprietors thus endowed with special privileges had authority to found a particular colony and enjoy property, commercial, governing, and other rights similar in character to those vested in a company by royal charter.
Motives of Emigration
A . Military motives:

Escaping from wars in Europe, inside, between kingdoms for the purpose of extending, and outside, especially after importing black powder from China to make explosives. So soldiers saw that this war didn’t serve them, they fight only for die. Die for die, why not die for America?
B . Economic motives:

Businessmen (land lords) used serfs to grow vegetables in their lands, then after they sold a part land in order to became rich, and they moved to grains, and the large number of workers for that was not needed; they move to cities that was full of people, so serfs became penniless, jobless and homeless, and to avoid dying by poverty, they decide to emigrate. starving for starving, is better to starve in New Land.
C . Religious motives:

In Middle Ages there was only one religion (Catholicism) and one church, in the head of it there was the pope, and who didn’t accept that would be treated as heretic and would be persecuted. Individuals protest against pope because he stands between them and God. The protestation created Protestantism, and after a hard time of persecution the country became protestant.

The king or queen controlled the priest and the pope (they hadn’t right to worship God freely), some people were going to protest another time, and they wanted to make a pure religion. Another group wanted to separate themselves completely and they were called “separatism”.

Quakers is a group of people of people didn’t have a priest, they believe in what they called: word right became of the persecution. They went to North of America in order to worship God, as they wanted. In 1730 they succeeded to build 13 states. America was considered as the promise land.
D . Political motives:

Kings and Queens wanted to be very rich and do what they want, so they enlarge their power without limit, this is what we called “absolute monarchy”, people didn’t accept this situation, and rich people wanted to put limit to the power of the monarchy, whereas poor people lost every things, it is why they didn’t have any reaction against the monarchy.

The properties and lands of rich people were being taken so they created the parliament. Charles I raised taxes and did ever he wanted, that what led to civil war where Charles I beheaded so the cavaliers feared the same result, therefore they decide to leave to the new land to wait to any political peace.

EXPLORATION, TERRITORIAL CLAIMS, AND COLONIZING

Impelling curiosity was one of the prime forces that drove adventuresome Europeans to sail westward across the uncharted atlantics, centuries ago; to come by surprise upon the great wilderness later called America. Impelling curiosity, too, induced European settlers in America and their descendants to investigate with growing success the complex laws of the physical world about them. Finally, impelling curiosity led Americans, enriched with the new accumulation of knowledge, to undertake the ultimate in exploration-the probing of the vastnesses of the mighty universe itself. In 1959 a device built and launched in the United States shot past the moon into permanent orbit around the sun, millions of miles from the Earth. It was followed by an American electronic complex that observed the planet Venus, and by a later probe that flashed photographs of mars back to Earth by radio. Work has begun on vehicles to carry men to the moon, perhaps to be followed by human visits to Mars. Once the solar system has been conquered, what stand in the way of going even deeper into the dim immensities of space?

Plunging into this great stream of exploration near its source, where the details of our story may properly begin, we find Europeans on the late fifteenth century contemplating a daring project. It was that of sailing westward across the Atlantic, defying unknown hazards, in quest of new routes to old lands, and perhaps finding hitherto unsuspected regions along the way. Then as now, major exploratory projects were expensive. Like the space probes of our own times, they were government financed, and considered by many as important to the maintenance of national prestige.

While it has been claimed that Leif Erickson might have reached north America around the year 1000, the first major exploratory expedition westward across the Atlantic to produce lasting results was that of Christopher Columbus financed largely by the Spanish royal treasury and actively backed by queen Isabella, who saw the possibilities of the enterprise. With her good wishes and small fleet Columbus and a motley crew left Spain and came upon islands well of the southeastern coast of what is now the United States. The year was 1492.

Within a short time, other European nations entered the exploratory race, in quest of fame and fortune. Of particular interest to Americans was the project of King Henry VII of England, which assigned to john Cabot, an Italian navigator, and his three sons, the task of seeking hitherto unknown heathen lands to the west, on the way to Cipango (Japan) and China via the Atlantic.

In carrying out his orders, Cabot reached the shores of what is now Canada, in the region where the mighty St. Lawrence River pours forth into the sea. There, in 1497, he landed and planted the banner of the English king, claiming for his sponsor what he supposed was the east coast of Asia. With new of his labors, he went back to England. The next years Cabot was sent out again. This time he sighted the east coast of Greenland but his sailors mutinied against pushing north into the strange, icy seas that interested him. To satisfy the crew, he headed southward, coming to the continent of North America and following its shores to a point in the neighborhood of what is now called Chesapeake bay. Unable to find a rich people with goods for profitable trade, he returned to England deeply disappointed.

On the basis of Cabot’s discoveries, the King laid claim to a domain of unknown size and character in North America on which on history of the United states was to unfold. By this simple act, he opened for the English the greatest real estate and investment opportunity in the history of western civilization.

But nearly a century passed before the English began to take full advantage of that opportunity. In the interval numerous and wide voyages by Portuguese, Italian, Spanish, French, and English explorers led to mapping, if roughly, the contours of a large part of the two Americas. And as an outcome Spanish, Portuguese, and French rules also laid claims to large shares of land in the western Hemisphere.

Intrepid explorers under the flag of Spain, by innumerable journeys, were the first to penetrate the mainlands. Spanish conquerors led by Hernando Cortes and Francisco Pizarro invaded Mexico and Peru, robbed them of gold, silver, and precious stones, and excited all Europe by reports of wealth in the New World. Between 1539 and 1542 Hernando de Soto traveled overland from the coast of Florida, with his mounted companions, to the Mississippi River and some distance beyond. During those years Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, with an armed band of horsemen, toiled west of the Mississippi, looking for more treasure in the rumored Indian cities of Cibola. In 1565 the Spanish planted the settlement of St. Augustine in Florida.

By the middle of the sixteenth century the Spaniards seemed about to take possession of the newly discovered world. Though they had not found more gold and silver in regions above Mexico or the elixir of youth sought in Florida by Ponce de Leon, by 1550 the ruler of Spain, Charles V, could claim as his property many islands in the Caribbean; Mexico by right of conquest; all of south America except Brazil, which the Portuguese had seized; and an immense area, If indefinite as to boundaries, north of the Golf of Mexico and Rio Grande. To back up his claim he had at his command a big navy, a large merchant marine, and many hardy soldiers. With his conquering hosts were associated dauntless Catholic priests to aid in establishing a New Spain in the New World-a state, church and feudal aristocracy all resting on the labor of subject peoples.

Before the English government began to develop its territorial rights by occupation the monarchs of France had also become interested in the New World. Francis I laughed at Spain and Portugal for pretending to own so much of it, and declared that he wanted to see the will of Father Adam, the first proprietor, bequeathing to them the inheritance they claimed. In 1524, while Henry VIII, who had succeeded his father in 1509, was neglecting the patrimony won by Cabot’s voyages, Francis sent an Italian seaman, John Verrazano, across the Atlantic to hunt for a northwest passage to the Orient. Verrazano did not find the passage, but he did sail along the coast of North Ameriaca and gave Francis good grounds for asserting that he too owned a big share of the new continent. Several years later Francis sent Jacques Cartier forth on two successive voyages. They resulted in explorations of the St. Lawrence River region, the bestowal of the name Montreal on an Indian village, and a more definite claim to a huge area in that neighborhood.

Such were the rights asserted by England, Spain, and France to enormous masses of land in the new world when Queen Eli***eth came to the throne of England in 1558. Her father, Henry VIII, had done nothing to develop the real estate nominally acquired through the voyages of Cabot. Busy with intrigues on the continent of Europe, his marital troubles, and his quarrels with the Pope, he had continued to neglect his opportunities in the New World. During the reigns of his son Edward VI and his daughter Mary, England had been torn by religious disputes, and the exploitation of land over the sea had been slighted by English states men.

With the accession of Queen Elizabeth, however, many things incited English enterprises to develop the real estate and investment opportunity opened to them by the voyages of Cabot under Henry VII. Elizabeth was high-spirited, well educated in the secular learning of the renaissance, and greatly interested in adding to the riches and power of her realm. She was determined that her people should be kept protestant in religion under the Church of England, firmly united, and strong enough to break the dominion of her catholic rival, the King of Spain, in the Atlantic Ocean. Eli***eth gathered around her protestant statesmen of the same mind, fostered the growth of the English navy, and encouraged her sea captains to plunder Spanish ships and colonies wherever they could.

The new temper of the Eli***eth age was imperiously displayed in 1577-1580 when the England “sea dog,” Francis Drake, sailed around the world plundering cities and Spanish ships laden with treasures as he went-down along the east coast of south America, up along the west coast, to the shores of California, and all the way home.

From this exploit English capitalists got an inkling of the investment opportunity before them, on and across the seas. Money for Drake’s expedition had been supplied by a corporation in which Elizabeth held Shares. The company’s original investment was £5000. in return for the stockholders’ risk, drake’s treasures ships brought them £600,000 in profits-enough to satisfy the most expectant investor. As a prudent ruler Elizabeth. Used her portion of the proceeds to pay off the debts owed by the Crown. According to careful estimates, the numerous raids on Spanish ships and colonies during Eli***eth’s reign netted the handsome sum of £12,000,000.

With news of splendid returns on investment undertakings at sea ringing in their ears, English merchant capitalists, including investors among fair ladies, began to take a serious interest in the real estate of the English Crown in the New World. Since it was undeveloped real estate-not land occupied by peoples abounding in wealth-its exploitation demanded colonization by the English people themselves and the founding of a “New England” under the Crown of the old England, one of the favorites at her court, a patent to all the territory he might colonize, on condition that he pay to the Crown one fifth of the returns from the mining of precious metals.

Under this patent Raleigh sent out in 1584 an expedition which visited the island of Roanoke off the Coast of North Carolina and brought back reports of a favorable climate and country- “the most plentiful, sweet, fruitful, and wholesome of all the world.” The next year Raleigh dispatched seven ships and 108 colonists to Roanoke, but the colonial experiment was a failure. Raleigh made another attempt in 1587, only to fail again. The colonists who shared in that venture utterly disappeared from the scene, leaving behind them not even a clue to their fate. The sixteenth century came to a close without the creation of a single permanent English settlement in America.

But the century did not close until the English navy, aided by terrible storm at sea, had destroyed in 1588 the Spanish Armada, a mighty fleet sent by the King of Spain to crush the rising power of England. Though this victory, by eliminating powerful enemy forces, would have facilitated the settlement of America, The English did not immediately follow up their advantage with a wave of colonization.

While the English rested, three rival power made the most of the lull to strengthen their positions in America. Following Hudson’s trip in 1609, up the river now bearing has name, his Dutch Employers laid claim to the surrounding territory. As “New Netherland” this holding became an important farming and trading community with what is now New York City as its chief port. Farther to the North, in Canada, French fur traders set up temporary quarters which were followed, in 1608, by the establishment of Canada’s oldest permanent community-Quebec. From this base, French missionaries journeyed westward, creating missions all the way to the Great Lakes by 1616. Meanwhile Spain expanded from her Florida base to build posts and missions along the Atlantic Coast as far north as what is now the State of South Carolina. On the other side of the Mississippi River, Spaniards went from Mexico northward into what is now the State of New Mexico, in 1598. by 1610 their settlements were being governed from a capital at Santa Fe, a community that has come down to our own times to serve as the capital of a modern State.

By the time the English finally got around to exploiting in earnest the territory nominally under the English Crown, the French, the Spanish and Dutch already had good footholds in the New World. To cope with these established rivals, England now most urgently needed large, permanent, and prosperous colonies, something new to British experience. Beside this complicated undertaking the spectacular dispatch of Drake on a voyage of exploration and the sensational robbery of Spanish vessels were mere theatrical displays of power and daring. To arm a few ships, shoot up Spanish galleons, loot them, and send the to the bottom of the ocean was an operation that required little money-mainly skill in navigation and the fighting spirit.

Great peaces of real estate were granted to the London Company and the Plymouth Company. In the shaded portion of the map both companies could make settlements provided their plantations were at least 100 miles apart.

Qualities and courage of a different sort were necessary to create large and orderly societies in a wilderness. This business demanded huge capital. It was more than men’s work: women in great numbers had to be associated with it. All the ideals, arts, and sciences of civilization were involved in it.

Not fully aware of all that colonization implied but eager to exploit the real estate in America, England merchant capitalists sought that privilege from the Crown at the beginning of the seventeenth century. They had already formed trading companies to engage in commerce with Russian the Levant, and the East Indies. In corporate enterprises of that type they had demonstrated their ingenuity. Besides they had accumulated much capital for investment. This capital they now proposed to use in colonial enterprise, about which they knew so little. Only one aspect of it was clear to them: individual farmers, merchants, artisans, and their families, with small savings or none at all, could not embark unaided on any such undertaking as large-scale colonization.

Under English law all the territory claimed in America belonged to the Crown. The monarch could withhold it from use, keep any part of it as a royal domain, or grant it, by charter or parent, in large or small blocks, to privileged companies or private persons. It was to the Crown, therefore, that English enterprises bent on the Colonizing America turned for grants of land and powers of government. And in making such grants by charter or parent, the Crown created two types of legal agencies for colonization: the corporation and the proprietary.

The corporate type of colonizing agency was the company, or group individuals merged into a single “person” at law by a royal charter. The charter named the original members of the company and gave them the right of elect officers, frame bylaws, raise money, and act as a body. It granted to the company an area of territory and conferred upon it certain powers: to transport emigrants, govern its settlements, dispose of its land and others resources, and carry on commerce, subject to the laws of England. Such a corporation was akin to the modern joint-stock company organized for profit-making purposes.

The proprietary agency for colonizing consisted of one or more persons to whom were given a grant of territory and various powers of government by the Crown. The proprietor or proprietors thus endowed with special privileges had authority to found a particular colony and enjoy property, commercial, governing, and other rights similar in character to those vested in a company by royal charter.

Companies and proprietors did not, however, have a completely free hand in managing their colonial affairs. They were limited by the terms of their charters or patents and were compelled to confer upon free settlers certain liberties and immunities enjoyed by English people at home, including a share in the making of local laws.

Various motives inspired English leaders to form companies or embark on careers as proprietors in America. Among the motives was the desire to extend English power, to make money out of trading privileges and land sales, and to convert the Indians to Christianity. For some companies and proprietors the idea of establishing religious liberty in America for members of persecuted sects was also among the primary considerations in their colonizing activities. Still another purpose entering in the plans of companies or proprietors was that of giving poor and otherwise unfortunate persons in England a chance to work and **** better in a new country so open to opportunity. In other words, political, economic, religious, and charitable motives induced English leaders to devote their energies to the business of colonization.

The systematic beginnings of all the American colonies were made by companies or proprietors or under their jurisdiction. By 1733, the year in which the last colony, Georgia, was started at Savannah, there were thirteen colonies under the Crown at London, legally known as the British Crown after the Union of England and Scotland in 1707. these colonies, taken arbitrarily in geographical order, with references to origins, were:

v New Hampshire: party an offshoot of Massachusetts, given a separate status in 1679.

v Massachusetts: founded in 1630 by puritans under the Massachusetts Bay Company; with it became associated in 1691 the colony of Plymouth, established by the Pilgrims in 1620 on land belonging to the Plymouth Company chartered by James I in 1606.

v Rhode Island: incorporating two offshoots from Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, to which, as a single colony, a royal charter was given in 1663.

v Connecticut: originating partly in offshoots from Massachusetts planted in the Connecticut valley in 1635 and partly in settlements on the shore, united under a royal charter in 1662.

v New York: founded as New Netherland under the Dutch West India Company in 1624; sized by the English in 1664 and given the name of New York.

v New Jersey: founded under Dutch auspices, sized by the English in 1664, and afterward named New Jersey.

v Delaware: first settled by the Dutch under the Dutch West India Company and by Swedes under the Swedish south Company; taken by the English in 1664 and placed under the proprietorship of William Penn in 1682.

v Pennsylvania: granted to William Penn as proprietary by Charles II in 1681; first settlement at Philadelphia in 1682.

v Maryland: granted to Lord Baltimore as proprietary in 1632 and started by settlements on Chesapeake Bay in 1634.

v Virginia: founded by settlement as Jamestown in 1607, made under the London Company chartered by James I in 1606.

v North Carolina: early settlements made by pioneers from other colonies; passed under an association of proprietors in 1665 by a royal grant covering all the Carolina region, formerly within the jurisdiction of the Virginia Company; given a separate status as the royal province of North Carolina In 1729.

v South Carolina: granted to proprietors in 1665; settlements made at Albemarle Point in 1670 and near Charleston in 1672; an independent royal province after 1729.

v Georgia: granted to a board of trustees, or company, by George II in 1732; Savannah founded in 1733.

This listing of some of the corporate and proprietary agencies under which English colonization took place, does not give an adequate impression of the amount of free movement by individuals and groups in America, especially after the first settlements had been planted. Nothing less than an encyclopedia could do that.

Take for example North Carolina. Virginians had made a permanent settlement in that region at least five years before it was granted to proprietors in 1665, and other pioneers, mainly Scotch, Scotch-Irish, and Germans from Pennsylvania, went down into North Carolina on their own motion.

Again, take New Hampshire in the far north. An independent settlement was established there as early as 1623 under a royal grant. Other beginnings in New Hampshire had been made before the Puritans came to Massachusetts Bay in 1630. when Puritans pushed over into the New Hampshire region and claimed it as a part of their grant, they encountered stout opposition from the forerunners. Only after many disputes was a final separation from Massachusetts effected by New Hampshire in 1679.

But independent undertakings and individual or group migrations from colony to colony, significant as they were in colonial beginnings, had relatively little influence on the rise of self-governing colonies. It was under companies and proprietors holding grants of land subject to the English Crown that systematic colonization on a large scale was made all the colonies were securely laid. Crown, companies, and proprietors, their work was to have from the outset a profound influence on the course of affairs which eventuated in the formation of the continental United States


The British Rules:
Introduction

In 1763 after a war that lasted for 7 years between England and France, France was defeated and lost the war, so it lost Canada, and after, French people signed a treaty of Paris.

Canada became an English property, when two countries waged in warn they needed money, weapons, and army…

British power succeeded to obtain Canada, but when they looked at finance ministry, they found out, and England was financially exhausted, so the result was needed money for obtaining Canada, for that, they asked people in America to pay taxes to help the mother country.

It was found some difficulties of paying taxes, when they tell to people who were living in Eastern part of America to pay, they had to go further, so British parliament made some laws[1].
Laws of British Parliament
A . The proclamation act (1763):

It was made to put bounds (to do not have the right to move further)

It was put especially for colonists in order to:

Make control on them and limit them abuses.

Avoid hostility with the Indians to get their friendship.
B . The Sugar act (1764):

When they imported something from England, they had to pay taxes on sugar on sugar, tea, and glass. Since the money, which collected, were not sufficient, they made another law.
C . The stamp act (1765):

Stamps had to be affixed on loyal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, wills, and advertisements… in order to supply the war.
D . The declaratory act (1766):

So people protest against this act, and create an organization (sons of liberty). The aim of this organization was to intimidate taxpayers, and to intimidate the tax collections. They refuse to pay taxes because they haven’t benefit in this war. They refuse also because they said: ” we don’t have American citizen in English government”, so they proclaim: “No Taxation Without Representation”, so they repealed[2] the British acts.

The British government still in need of money, so instead of taxing them externally (because there are two kinds of taxation: internal tax (which were repealed) and external one).

The idea of Charles Townshend, so they called them Townshend duties (1767).

They repealed again, and in 1770, these duties were repealed: they carried on so till 1773.

There was a British company called “East Indian Company”, it brought and sold tea from India, China to England. This company at a given time had excess of tea about 17 millions £, and if they didn’t succeed to sell their goods, they will go bankrupt, in other side; this company brought much money to GB. So they turn to British government to ask 4 help, and the government gave the; the right to sell tea in America (monopoly), but it was the only company allowed to do so.

For that, they didn’t accept and one of the ships of the company arrived to Boston, the “sons of Liberty” disguised themselves as Indians and climbed to ships and took 342 boxes of tea and throw them in the sea (Boston Tea Party).

The British knew that there weren’t the Indians who did that. They told them either to pay for tea or they would take steps, and they decided to close the port of Boston.

The Americans refused, that was what made British took the “Evercive Acts” in 1774. The American called them the “Intolerable Laws”
The Intolerable Laws
A . The Boston Port Act:

This act closed the port of Boston till the paid of damages.
B . The Massachusetts Government Act:

It revoked the charter of Massachusetts and latter it becomes a royal colony.
C . The Administration of Justice Act:

British officials who committed crimes in America had to be taken to GB to be judged, the Americans refused this act, they said: the killer will be released in England.
D . The Quartering Act:

Colonist paid taxes because the territory in America was not theirs, but was of Great Britain. Since they **** there, they submit to US laws.

Parliament made laws: sugar, stamp, proclamation and declaratory. The interests were completely different and dissimilar. They said: America and British do the same in England.

The Americans were compelled to quarter British soldiers in America, all that are to strangle colony.

About the Tea problem, leaders used to find a solution, if not they shut the company, they had to buy the damage of tea in order to avoid jughting between acts.

The American citizens had the first meeting of the continent (First Continental Congress) to find solution for the colony. They wrote a letter to the king George III asking for help, because he was the one who gave them the permission to go to America.

Great Britain is the mother country for Americans, so they wrote a letter to the king G The British soldier had heard that Americans collected weapons there in order to fight against Great Britain. So British went to check and confiscate in their way, they crashed with Americans. It was a real conflict between them and no one knew who shot first. It was the first shot heard around the world.

Some historians called it “the war of independence” but the land was Indians property, not American.

Some others said that it was “a revolution”, so British origin in America fought against British army of the king and it was a ball of revolution.

The Americans fought and they were ready to die that they **** as slaves. “Is better to **** as a dog and die as a lion”.nce” but the land was Indians property, not American.

Some others said that it was “a revolution”, so British origin in America fought against British army of the king and it was a ball of revolution.

The Americans fought and they were ready to die that they **** as slaves. “Is better to **** as a dog and die as a lion”.

They organized the second continental congress. It was the second meeting; they raised and collected an army named “The Continental Army”. They were farmers, traders...etc; on other hand, British army had experiences of fighting.

For that, they put a commander chief of the continental army; his name was “George Washington”, who had an experience in military affairs.

There were three categories of people:

1. Who wanted to fight to obtain independence

2. Loyalist

3. Indifferent people: ordinary people who didn’t care for fighting and preferred to **** in peace.

American obtained money from Spain, France, and they used money and Soldiers who were volunteers, they used to do that for the idea of independence, and for the ideal. But Americans needed who supported their side from the world.

Is what we called “approving conscience” from mankind to be sure that they were right?

On 4 July 1776: the Americans declared their independence. They sent a document to Great Britain, that they would have their independence.

The writer of the document was “Thomas Jefferson[3]”, who said “truths which are self evidence”. They gave him a task to write a declaration.

The question is: why “Thomas Jefferson”?

Because he was not an ordinary man, he found the Virginia University, he was a Philosopher, he spoke 6 languages: French, German, Spanish, Latin, Greek and Slaves, he had 8000 Hectares, he wrote about all mathematic and Lecture, he became minister to France. He would be the 3rd president of America. He was a politician and a political figure; he invoked reasons to convince the world. He was an author.

He became a man before his time, because when his father died, Thomas was 14 years old. He was the founder of the anti federalist, it was named “the Jeffersonian party”, he was a fine pen, and it means that he had a good style of writing.

He mentioned two grounds: legal ground and extra.

Legal ground (philosophical) to explain why Americans compelled to ask arms.

All these were the main points that help Thomas to be chosen as a writer for the document to the king George III.

In 1776, they still fight English Soldiers; English troops needed on accent from mankind that they are right to do that. But Americans might feel morally strong to convince others about the independence, to give reason and to say what happened exactly and tell them to judge.

Legal ground: they said: we accept to pay the external taxes, but not the internal one. So they moved from something specific to something general (internal taxes were something specific).

They invoked 3 points (reasons):

1. There is no Taxation without representation, they just invoked reasons. So they refused to pay neither internal taxes nor external one, than after they refuse also to send representative because they have not the same interest as Americans.

2. They said that if there was some bode we had to do for the king no the parliament.
Why the king? Because he was the owner of America and the London company, the body who put the laws is parliament, they got the permission from the king and the king said to them: either they have to submit or to fight.

3. They moved to natural law; they applied to the natural law, they said: we’ve the same rights as the English men in Great Britain.

But Benjamin Franklin[4] who was not an official representing went to the parliament in order to mention the bed life of Americans.

The difference is that they **** in America, when their rights don’t take into consideration; they have to go to the justice.

The problem is that they didn’t want to submit their case in British court or to any other court.

Why all these things don’t serve? They wanted to govern themselves by themselves.

Americans said that they **** in America, they work in America, they are far from England’s laws, so “why do they send representative?”

The Americans rebelled, so their claim became extra-legal.

At the same time is to govern themselves by themselves, they refused the Consultation Authority (British Parliament).

Why Americans did go to fight against England? The main cause was the Taxation. They said: ”yes to external taxation and no to internal, but American was against both of taxes”. (aye & ny[5])

A newspaperman made an interview with a farmer. The newspaperman said: “you will go to fight because of the stamp act”. The farmer said: “I had never saw it”.

The newspaperman said: “you will do because of the tea act”. The farmer said:”I had never drunk a drop of it (tea)”, and he claimed: “we fight against red uniform, because we always wanted to govern ourselves and Great Britain did not want to let us govern ourselves”.

In the declaration, we find political doctrine, which divided on 3 main points:

I. All that men are created equal and the right of life liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
God give us the right of life. Thus you can’t make the end of it.
We don’t have the right to enslave us free, we still like that as far as. Every one wants to be happy, we obtain this right from God and no one has the right to hate that and make obstacles.[6]

II. The origin of government, or the state of nature the survival of the fittest, so there is no room for weak. If we want something we must be strong. Americans decided to make end to this situation and establish a new government from themselves.
Why? Because the job is to secure these rights to ****.

III. If the government does not secure the right, people can change it or abolish it, and establish another.



[1] Christopher Columbus (1446?-1506) Italian explorer and navigator who discovered America in 1492

[2] Walter Raleigh (1554-1618), English explorer and writer, court poet for Queen Eli***eth I, author of "Discovery of Guiana"

[1] To make law = to enact

[2] To repeal = to delete a law

[3] Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) American statesman, one of the authors of the Declaration of Independence, 3rd president of the United States (1801-1809)

[4] Benjamin Franklin (1706-90), American statesman scientist and author, signer of the Declaration of Independence, publisher of "Poor Richard's Almanack"

[5] Aye ó yes & ny ó no

[6] In justice, they are in the samle foot (same rights)


--------------------------------
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: American Civilisation    American Civilisation  Emptyالسبت 19 يناير 2013 - 21:25

:سلام.: please i need a theme about education in USA
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: American Civilisation    American Civilisation  Emptyالأحد 14 يوليو 2013 - 0:26

i haven't understand anything -_- any way Thanks friend
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American Civilisation

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